Appendix II

References and suggested readings


A. General References

1. Fundamentals of Ecology, 5th ed..  Eugene P. Odum and Gary W.  Barrett. Cengage Learning. Pp. 624. 2004

2. Stream Ecosystems in a Changing Environment. Jeremy B. Jones and Emily H. Stanley. Academic Press, Amsterdam, Boston, Heidelberg, London, New York. 2016.

3. River Ecosystem Ecology: A Global Perspective. G. E. Likens, ed. Academic Press, Amsterdam, Boston, Heidelberg, London, New York., pp. 411. 2010

4. Stream Ecology: Structure and Function of Running Waters. 2nd ed., J. David Allan and Maria M. Castillo. Springer, Pub. 2007

5. Methods in Stream Ecology 2nd ed.. F. R. Hauer and G. A. Lamberti, eds. Academic Press, New York. pp. 674. 2007.

6. River and Stream Ecosystems of the World. C. E. Cushing, K. W. Cummins, and G. W. Marshall, eds. University of California Press. 2006.

7. Stream: Their Ecology and Life. Colbert E. Cushing and J. David Allan. Academic Press. New York, London. Pp. 366. 2001

8. The Biology of Streams and Rivers. Paul S. Geller and Bjorn Malmqvist. Oxford University Press. 1999

9. Restoring Life In Running Waters. James R. Karr and Ellen W. Chu. Island Press. pp. 207. 1999

10. Water, Rivers and Creeks. Luna B. Leopold. University Science Books. Sausalito, California. 185 p. 1997. 

11. A View of the River. Luna B. Leopold. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. And London, England. 298 p. 1994. 

12. Riparian Ecosystems: Update, Vol. 9, no. 1. Center for Conservation Biology. 1995.

13. How to Save a River. David M. Bolling. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 1994

14.  Rivers and Streams. In: Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. Committee on Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology and Public Policy. Water Science and Technology Board. Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources. National Research Council. pp. 165-261. 1992. 

15.  A perspective on America’s Vanishing Streams. Behnke, A.C. 1990. J. Am. Benthol. Soc. 9:77-78.

16. River Pollution: an Ecological Perspective. S.M. Haslam. Belhaven Press, London and New York 253 p. 1990.

B. Trout Biology

1. Trout and Salmon of North America. Robert J. Behnke. Simon and Schuster. pp. 384. 2010

2. Trout. An Illustrated History. James Prosek. Knopf, Pubs. pp. 168. 1996

3. Trout of the World. James Prosek. Harry N. Abrams, Pub. pp.224. 2013

4. Handbook of Trout and Salmon Diseases 3rd ed.. R.J. Roberts and C.J. Shepherd. Fishing News Books. pp. 216. 1997

5. Trout Biology. Bill Willers. Lyons & Buford Pubs. New York. pp. 273. 1991

6. Biology of Brown and Sea Trout.  Jean-Luc Bagliniere and Gerard Maisse. Springer-Verlag, London. pp. 286. 1999

7. Trout: a cultural and natural history of trout. James Owen. Reaktion Books, London. pp.    2012

8. Brook Trout. A Thorough Look at North America’s Great Native Trout – Its History, Biology, and Angling Possibilities. Nick Karas. Skyhorse, Pubs. pp. 458. 2015

9. Dave Whitlock’s Guide to Aquatic Trout Foods. Dave Whitlock. The Lyons Press. pp. 224. 199

B. Background Readings (for the sheer fun of it)

1. The Man Who Planted Trees. Jean Giono. Chelsea Green Pub. Co., White River Junction, Vermont. 1985.

2. The Lorax. Theodore Seuss Geisel. Random House, New York. 1971.

3. A Sand County Almanac. Aldo Leopold. Ballantine Books, New York. 1966.

4. The Diversity of Life 2nd Ed., E.O. Wilson. W.W. Norton & Co. New York and London. 1999. 

C. Topic-specific references

River types

Freestone River

a. Origin, composition, and flux of dissolved organic carbon in the Hubbard Brook  valley. 1988. McDowell, W.H., and G.E. Likens. Ecol. Monogr. 58:177-195.

b. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification in response to clear-cutting northern hardwood forest. 1991. J.A. Duggin, G.K. Voigt, and F.H. Bormann. Soil Biol. Biochem. 23:779-787. 

c. Studies of cation budgets in the Southern Appalachians on four experimental watersheds with contrasting vegetation. 1973. P.L. Johnson, and W.T. Swank. Ecology 54:70-80.

d. Shredders and riparian vegetation. 1989. K.W. Cummins, M.A. Wilzbach, D.M. Gates, J.B. Perry, and W.B. Taliaferro. BioScience 39:24-30.

e. Food Webs. S.L. Pimm. Chapman and Hall, Pub. New York. 1982.

f. Effects of fish in river food webs. 1990. M.E. Power. Science 250:811-814.

Feeder Stream

a. Mountain Streams. Paul Fleisher. Marshall Cavendish Corp. 1998.

b. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks; section 4-2, A.N. Strahler In: Handbook of Applied Hydrology (Ven te Chow, ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York. 1964.

c. An alternative for characterizing stream size. R.M. Hughes, and J.M. Omernik. InDynamics of Lotic Ecosystems (T.D. Fontaine and S.M. Bartell, eds). Ann Arbor Science. pp.87-102. 1983.

Spring Hole

a. Groundwater Hydrology. D.K. Todd. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 534 p. 1981.

b. Groundwater and stream ecology. 1983. H.B.N. Haynes. Hydrobiologia 100:93-99.

c. The ecological significance of exchange processes between rivers and groundwater. M. Brunke, and Gonser, T. 1997. Freshwater Biol. 37:1-33.

d. Studies in crenobiology. The biology of springs and springbrooks. (Botosaneanu, ed.) Backhuys Pub. Leiden, The Netherlands. 261 pp. 1998.

Limestone River

a. A Reverence for Rivers. L.B. Leopold. 1977. Geology 5:429-430.

b. Process Geomorphology. Ritter et al., Wm. C. Brown Publishers. 1995

Spring Creek

Spring Creeks. Mike Lawson. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsville, Pennsylvania. pp. 289. 2003

Tailwater Fisheries

a. How Dams Can Go With The Flow. N. LeRoy Poff and John C. Schmidt. 2016. Science. Vol. 353. pp. 1099-1100.

b. Impounded Rivers. Pettes, G.E. John Wiley, Chichester, England, 1984.

c. The Ecology of Regulated Streams: (Proceedings of the first International Symposium on Regulated Streams held in Erie, Pa. April 18-20, 1979). Plenum Pubs. New York. 1980.  

d. Regulated Streams. Advances in Ecology (John F. Craigg and J. Bryan Kemper, eds) Plenum Press, New York 1987.

e. Colorado River benthic ecology in Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A.: Dams, tributaries, and geomorphological influences. L.E. Stevens, J.P. Shannon, and D.W. Blinn. 1997. Regul. Rivers 13:129-150.    

Energy Flow

What Good is a Tree?

a. Trees and Streams. 1971. L.B. Leopold.  J. Theor. Biol. 31: 339-354

b. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. 2nd Ed. Gene E. Likens and F. Herbert Bormann. Springer-Verlag, Pubs., New York, Berlin, Heidelberg. 158 p. 1995. 

c.  Linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 1974. G.E. Likens and F.H. Bormann. Bioscience 24: 447-456. 

d. Long Term Studies in Ecology: Approaches and Alternatives. (Gene E. Likens, ed).  Springer-Verlag, New York, Heidelberg and Berlin. 214 p. 1988.

e. Recovery of three New Zealand rural streams as they pass through native forest remnants. R.G. Storey, D.R. and Cowley. 1997. Hydrobiologica 353:63-76.    

f. Organic matter budgets for streams: a synthesis. R.J. Webster, and J.L. Meyer. 1997. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc. 16:141-161.

g. Influence of riparian canopy on macroinvertebrate composition and food habits of juvenile salmonids in several Oregon streams. W.R. Meehan. 1996. US Forestry Service Research Paper PNW 496:1-14. 


a. The Ecology of Hyphomycetes. (Felix Barlocher, ed.). Ecological Studies 94                Springer-Verlag, Pub., Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. 223 p. 1992.

 b. Leaf breakdown in stream ecosystems. Benfield, E.F. In: Methods in Stream Ecology (F. Richard Hauer and Gary A. Lamberti, eds). Academic Press, New York. pp. 579-589. 1996

c. Feeding ecology of stream invertebrates. Cummins, K.W., and M.J. Klug. In: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. pp. 47-172. 1979. 

d. A comparison of primary production in stream ecosystems. G.A. Lamberti, and A.D. Steinman. 1997. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc. 16:95-104.

e. Multiple trophic levels of a forest stream linked to terrestrial litter inputs. J.B. Wallace, et al 1997. Science 277:102-104.


a. A Field Guide to Wildflowers: Northeastern and North Central America (Peterson Field Guide). R. T. Peterson. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1998

b. Rehabilitation of River Margins. A.R.G. Large and G.E. Petts. In: River Restoration (G.Petts and Peter Calow, eds.) Blackwell Science, Ltd., Oxford, England. pp.106-123. 1996.

c. Concept of the Community In: Ecology. 3rd Ed. Robert E. Ricklefs. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York. pp. 655-676. 1990.

d. Sunflecks and their importance to forest understory plants. Robin L. Chazdon In: Advances in Ecological Research. Vol. 18 (M. Begon, A.H. Fitter, E.D.Ford, and A. Macfadyen, eds). Academic Press, New York. pp. 1-63. 1988.

e. Reconciling landscape and local views of aquatic communities: lessons learned from Michigan trout streams. M.J. Wiley, S.L. Kohler, and P.W. Seelbach. 1997. Freshwater Biol. 37:133-148.


a. Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America 4th ed. Richard W. Merritt and Kenneth W. Cummins, eds. Kendall-Hunt, Pub. Co. 2008.

b. Trout Stream Insects: an Orvis Streamside Guide. Dick Pobst. The Lyons Press.  New York. 96 p. 1991.

c. The Ecology of Aquatic Insects (V.H. Resh and D.M. Rosenberg, eds). Praeger             Pubs. New York. 1984.

d. Aquatic Entomology: The fisherman’s illustrated guide to insects and their relatives. W. Patrick McCafferty.  Jones And Bartlett Pubs. Inc. Boston. pp 448. 1981  

e. The role of macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystem function. J.B. Wallace, and J.R. Webster. 1996. Ann. Rev. Entom. 41:115-139.

f. Microbial activity and macro invertebrate colonization of wood in a New Zealand forest stream. J.L.Tank, and M.J. Winterbourn. 1996. New Zealand J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 30:271-280.

g. Power, M.E. 1990. Effects of fish in river food webs. Science 250:811-814

h. The Caddis and The Angler. Larry Solomon and Eric Leiser. Stackpole Books. Mechanicville, Pennsylvania. Pp. 225. 1977.

i. Caddisflies. Gary LaFontaine. Lyons and Burford Pubs. New York. pp. 336. 1981

j. Mayflies. Malcom Knopp and Robert Cromier. Greycliff Publishing Company, Helena, Montana. pp. 366. 1997

k. Mayflies, The Angler, And The Trout. Fred L. Arbona, Jr. Winchester Press, Tulsa, Oklahoma. pp. 1980

l. Stoneflies. Carl Swisher, Doug Richards, and Fred Arbona, Jr. Nick Lyons/Winchester Press. New York, pp. 192. 1980


a. Invertebrate drift: a review. 1988. J. A. Brittan, and T.J. Eikeland. Hydrobiologica 166:77-93.      

b. Trout predation and the size composition of stream drift. 1978. J.D. Allan. Limnology and Oceanography 23:1231-1237. 

c. Macroinvertebrate Movement: Drift, Colonization and Emergence. Leonard A. Smock. In: Methods in Stream Ecology (F. Richard Hauser and Gary A. Lamberti, eds) Academic Press, New York. pp 371-390. 1996.

d. Invertebrate drift and longitudinal transport processes in streams. J. Lancaster A.G.Hildrew, and C. Gjerlov. Canadian J. Fish.Aquatic. Sci. 53:572-582.   

e. Hyporheic Zones. Clifford N. Dahm and H. Maurice Valett. In: Methods in Stream Ecology (F. Richard Hauser and Gary A. Lamberti, eds) Academic Press, New York. pp 107-119. 1996

f. A perspective on the surface freshwater-groundwater ecotone. 1992. Vervier, P., J. Gilbert, P. Marmonier, and M.J. Dole-Oliver. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc. 11:93-102.